It also diversifies against risk. But there’s also massive debate about the actual implementation of that and whether that’s the right way to look at things. Because the key question is whom to ask. So suddenly you’re in a game of… Which is pure physics. That’s what neuroscientists do. 2010 wurde er Vizepräsident für Wissenschaftspädagogik am HHMI. We could do a lot of research even if it didn’t pay off immediately and that’s sort of gone away. And those also boost wealth. Why approximate? It’s like thinking about things rather than getting a lecture in them. Different podcast episodes have different spirits in some sense. So a few of people trading the cards who are not used to doing this, once they own the card, they value it as much more just because it’s theirs, like they identify with the card, it’s mine, but professional traders are in a sense, more ruthless, they’re more willing to just buy and sell at whatever is the best price. I’m trying to sample those data that will shrink my uncertainty. 42:58 SC: No. Professor Sean Carroll, Ph.D. is the c hair of the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering. went to macroeconomics with gauge theory etc. He has been a contributor to the physics blog Cosmic Variance, and has published in scientific journals such as Nature as well as other publications, … 0:22:35 SC: And this kind of makes intuitive sense, right, that our brain would like to carry around with it a model of the world such that it typically looks around and says, yes, that’s more or less what I would have expected. 54:39 SC: And, yeah, like I said, I thought the ideas in there are wonderful and provocative. There’s a lot of food for thought. 1:15:37 KF: Ah, good. 10:55 TC: Yes. It can be hard to measure the value of the environment, Leisure time, it’s pretty easy to measure the value of. And I remember taking a graduate Philosophy course with John Rawls when I was at Harvard and he said his goal is not that he be correct, but that there be no mistakes in the book. Sean Carroll is a theoretical physicist at the California Institute of Technology. (In the second half of the podcast we veer off into talking about quantum mechanics and the multiverse, to everyone’s benefit.) It’s not as clear cut as science. [laughter] It pushes your brain in directions that it might not usually go. In particular cases, say, well something is in season, truffle is a certain kind of mushroom, then maybe take it more seriously. 0:07:18 SC: Transitioned out of that. But it might be easier to work that way. 1:05:28 SC: We haven’t gotten to the origin of life yet, but we’re gonna get there, too. 0:51:54 SC: There is a whole philosophy of vagueness, it’s true. There’s a move afoot to re-legalize supersonic transport. But I did spend an early part of my life in a therapeutic community with 30 chronic schizophrenics… So now, by definition, you’re in the game of writing down these statistical mechanics of open systems that have some non-equilibrium steady state in virtue of having an attracting set. There are so many overlapping authorities that have to give a go-ahead for the New York City subway. 1:07:23 KF: And, in fact, you can just put a Boltzmann constant on and they are the same thing. Tyler will be well-known to many listeners for his long-running blog Marginal Revolution (co-created with his colleague Alex Tabarrok) and his many books and articles. 38:48 TC: Would be our penal system. 0:55:11 KF: So it’s one of these fixed point creatures. They may well be that the other side of the coin of having a Markov blanket namely, I must have an implicit generative model, or it looks as if my gradient flows are a variational gradient, the free energy gradient. Some of them they’re just… A lot of them are just genuinely guilty of real crimes, but still the idea that because you committed armed robbery three times, you have to join a gang, and maybe you’ll be gang raped in the shower and you’ll have this horrible existence. So it’s the improvement in my thinking before the podcast ever happens that’s the biggest gain for me. Is that right? I’m not sure settling other planets will ever be possible, but in so far as it might be, I would favor that. It’s a [1:16:53] ____ desert landscape, there’s a fundamental truth to that. And over time, a much richer society is gonna be much happier, much better off, more creative, more rewarding than a much poorer society. 0:22:45 SC: And so the free energy is the difference between what it’s sort of expecting and what it’s seeing, so it wants to minimize that. 0:25:19 KF: I should say the way that you described it makes sense having a model of the world we can make predictions and then we can test those predictions against sensory impressions, absolutely spot-on. 10:14 SC: And what’s the rationale behind that? 44:53 SC: Yeah, the observable universe is absolutely finite and our best theory says it will remain finite. And of course that’s a classic description of Parkinson’s disease. 1:25:11 SC: The error bars in some sense. Okay. 50:09 SC: Sorry there’s, I think there’s two things going on that I’m not sure of their relative magnitude. And again in say 1961, that, a, would have been impossible and, b, would not have been tolerated. It’s just now you’ve gotta think about the relative entropies. It’s all about redistributing wealth now rather than increasing the size of the pie and the human race over time. So, it has not been reviewed yet, early readers quite like it, but obviously they tend to be people who already know me and maybe they’re not objective. 0:31:11 SC: So you might say, well, let’s do the other thing, let’s have no beliefs about anything. Do you wonder why you get emotional each time you see a certain movie, or how on earth video games are designed? So Patreon users ask me questions, I try to answer as many of them as I can. But then, in some cases, especially when you go through the math, you’re always surprised, everything that happens is a little bit unlikely, ’cause it could have been anything else. Solar flares happen all the time, they’re not that big, but they’re… It’s very plausible that there is a long tail, and once every thousand years, a solar flare comes along that would completely wipe out the electrical grid. That’s enough for me to dive into free energy, except that you had this lovely story that I’ve heard about woodlice, when you were young and seeing them scurry around, that does set the stage very nicely. 0:57:43 KF: There were other German neurologists and natural scientists who focused specifically on there, and then that was picked up by William James on his European tours. And if I agreed with him I might take some solace in that knowledge. It can take us decades just to extend one subway line in Manhattan. Let’s say anything could happen. 10:58 SC: Did you… Would you say that you’ve always thought like an economist more or less and you’ve just become more professional about it, as you’ve grown up or is it something you discovered along the way? 28:51 SC: Well, what is the connection between having more choices about who to marry and economic growth? 0:30:50 SC: Let me try to put it in my words, and you can tell me if I’m coming close here. I very much believe it would be better if they did. So if you’re a corporation, and you’re doing budgeting and you’re calculating in monetary terms, for a lot of purposes, you should use various kinds of discount rates that is not incorrect, but if you’re talking about happiness or wellbeing and all of society for the distant future, affecting entire lives, that’s when we should apply this zero rate of discount. Another thing that would have huge effects in the future is the end of civilization, if we ruin the planet or something like that. It’s poor, everyone lives in a small village, you’re not very mobile, you don’t have railways, odds are you’ll marry someone right in your village. Carroll erhielt seinen Bachelor-Abschluss an der University of Washington und wurde an der Tufts University promoviert. Even if it’s not at first. 0:06:26 SC: I figured we would talk about this thing called the free energy principle, which you’ve been investigating and championing for a while now. It can take us decades just to extend one subway line in Manhattan. So can I come back with another parenthesis? But, again, it’s just organizing categories to put your thoughts into and help you see patterns across different decisions. So, where are they? And in fact, in the thermodynamic system, when you maximize entropy you’re minimizing free energy and vice versa. And also with the podcast, I know that you’re also a podcaster, my personal podcasting goal is to have conversations that I enjoy, is… Do you find that not only for books, but for your wider communicative strategy? Er ist darüber hinaus als Autor populärwissenschaftlicher Sachbücher und Podcaster tätig. 0:07:14 SC: So, you were actually a practitioner with patients, and the whole background? Is that analogous to what you’re saying about future generations? September 1960 in Toledo, Ohio) ist ein US-amerikanischer Molekularbiologe, Genetiker, Entwicklungsbiologe und Evolutionsbiologe. Is that… Post was not sent - check your email addresses! Let’s look at ways of subsidizing societies so they become wealthier to support more people and more resources. 20:29 TC: I do think we should aim for institutions that encourage people to have more children. So that… So, we want to understand how the mind works, how the brain works, in part to help fix it when it goes wrong.