In London in May 1641, Wentworth was executed. It disputed the evidence of massacres as collected by the authorities (the infamous ‘1641 depositions’). It took place in that part of the country which, thirty years before, had been the scene of wholesale confiscations; 3. 'At Drogheda,' says Mr. Lecky, 'there had been no pretence of a massacre and a large proportion of the garrison were English.' credit-by-exam regardless of age or education level. But the English ‘carried their malignity further; and they accused the Irish of those very crimes which they themselves committed upon that unhappy people…and the Catholics of Ireland for more than a century were persecuted to the loss of their lives and properties; and (what was still more grievous and afflicting) by the loss of their reputation for that conduct, which, while it really merited the applause of all good men, was converted into the imputation of foul and horrible slaughter’. (23. They wanted to keep their position in the Irish upper class. 'The warfare which ensued,' says Mr. Richey, 'resembled that waged by the early settlers in America with the native tribes. Timing was fundamental to his case. The immediate reason the rebellion started was due to policies in the three Stuart kingdoms. The outrages committed by the English were committed by disciplined armies, stimulated by authoritative commanders, and provoked or sanctioned by the English Government; 7. In 1660 some Catholic Royalists got their land back when England’s monarchy was restored. 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'I would rather die,' said the great Lord Halifax, 'than see a blade of English grass crushed by the foot of a foreign trespasser.' Prewar issues of the Catholic’s had not been resolved by the treaty. John Gibney is History Ireland news editor, 1641 depositions: online at http://1641.tcd.ie/. You can test out of the They were escorted by a rebel guard of 2,000. A dominance of Protestants was almost eradicated due to the revolt. The policy of extermination and confiscation — the policy of 'stamping out the Irish,' as if, to use the language of Mr. Froude, they were of 'no more value than their own wolves' — was at once adopted, and rigorously enforced. When discussing 1641, O’Connell pulled no punches: ‘There were two objects to be gratified by the English Protestant rulers of the day. Curry went to great lengths to demonstrate that 3,000 Catholic men, women and children had been massacred by English and Scots forces in and around Carrickfergus and Islandmagee in November 1641. This aggravated their wish to remove the settlers and this caused attacks on them at the start of the rebellion in 1641. Join our mailing list to receive the latest news and updates from our team. Radical religion in Ireland, 1641-1660 / Phil Kilroy -- The Protestant interest, 1641-1660 / T.C. ; The Barony of Upper Ossory is created in the Peerage of Ireland in favour of Barnaby Fitzpatrick. The allegation had a very pointed relevance. Congratulations to Karen Anderson the prize winner in January's draw who won a Claddagh Charm Bangle. Thirty years ago a brilliant English writer — perhaps the most brilliant English writer of our generation — wrote a book called The English in Ireland in the Eighteenth Century; and the account which he then gave of the Rebellion has passed current in England since. (11. The Barony of Dunboyne is created by patent in the Peerage of Ireland in favour of Edmond Butler. Says Clogy:—. In response, the Catholic gentry sought to regain confiscated lands and in the process overthrow what they saw as a Protestant regime in the country. Modern research calculates the actual number of deaths to be 12,000 out of a total Protestant population in Ulster at the time of 40,000, a massacre by any scale even if some thousands of these occurred as a result of military combat rather than the slaughter of the defenceless. The assumption that thousands of those Protestants were slaughtered helped to secure English support for the reconquest of Ireland in 1649; one justification used by Oliver Cromwell was that the massacres of 1641 had yet to be avenged. There is another point with which I wish to deal at once. It is equally certain that, before a week had passed, the troops slaughtered numbers of the rebels without the loss of a man on their side. This sudden revolt by rebel Catholics divides historians about short term and long term causes with some attributing it solely to the fact of the Ulster plantation system, which began in 1610, while others contend that the rebellion was a result of more recent economic dealings between Protestant settlers and the native Catholic population. Introduction : a failed revolution? It now became a cornerstone of a version of Irish history underpinning an emergent sense of Catholic, nationalist identity. The book is also available in Kindle. He remained for three days. The land that was a little before like a garden of Eden was speedily turned into a desolate wilderness. It is the duty of every people to defend their territory against the foreign invader. It had become clear beyond all doubt to the native population that the old scheme of rooting them out from the soil was the settled policy of the Government; that the land which remained to them was marked as a prey by hungry adventurers, by the refuse of the population of England and Scotland, by men who cared no more for their rights and happiness than they did for the rights and happiness of the worms which were severed by their own spades. The enterprise lost their support and the plan was carried out by the small group of Ulster Irishmen, and the Irish who felt they deserved the plantation. On the same day — October 24th — Chichester wrote to the King from Belfast, saying:—. The unconscious humour of this sentence is delightful. It continued into 1652 as the once Confederates armies which were referred to as tories (Irish for Pursued Man) were left to try guerrilla warfare. Me they stripped to my shirt in miserable weather; my wife was not so barbarously used; both of us, with a multitude of others, hurried to Moein Hall. I repeat, that the civilized government which provokes, or sanctions outrage, is infinitely a greater criminal than the 'tumultuary rabble' which, maddened by injustice and oppression, and goaded by fears of utter destruction, rushes into violent excesses. Her account is not a history of the famine, but personal eyewitness testimony to the suffering it caused. March 1641), The Merchant Royal, carrying a treasure worth over a billion US dollars, is lost at sea off Land's End. The Dublin born printer Mathew Carey published his mammoth Vindiciae Hibernicae in Philadelphia in 1819, using Protestant authors against themselves to show that their version of 1641 was a ‘foul, bloated mass of fraud and perjury’.